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이진하의 인터넷 명심보감 --- 찾아주셔서 감사합니다


영 문 속 담 2- Tao Te Ching

41. When superior students hear of the Tao
     They strive to practice it.
     When middling students hear of the Tao
     They sometimes keep it and sometimes lose it.
     When inferior students hear of the Tao
     They have a big laugh.
     But "not laughing" in itself is not sufficient to be called the Tao, and therefore it is said:
     The sparkling Tao seems dark
     Advancing in the Tao seems like regression.
     Settling into the Tao seems rough.
     True virtue is like a valley.
     The immaculate seems humble.
     Extensive virtue seems insufficient.
     Established virtue seems deceptive.
     The face of reality seems to change.
     The great square has no corners.
     Great ability takes a long time to perfect.
     Great sound is hard to hear.
     The great form has no shape.
     The Tao is hidden and nameless.
     This is exactly why the Tao is good at developing and perfecting.

42. The Tao produces one, one produces two.
     The two produce the three and the three produce all things.
     All things submit to yin and embrace yang.
     They soften their energy to achieve harmony.
     People hate to think of themselves as "orphan," "lowly," and "unworthy"
     Yet the kings call themselves by these names.
     Some lose and yet gain,
     Others gain and yet lose.
     That which is taught by the people
     I also teach:
     "The forceful do not choose their place of death."
     I regard this as the father of all teachings.

43. The softest thing in the world
     Will overcome the hardest.
     Non-being can enter where there is no space.
     Therefore I know the benefit of unattached action.
     The wordless teaching and unattached action
     Are rarely seen.

44. Which is dearer, fame or your life?
     Which is greater, your life or possessions?
     Which is more painful, gain or loss?
     Therefore we always pay a great price for excessive love
     And suffer deep loss for great accumulation.
     Knowing what is enough, you will not be humiliated.
     Knowing where to stop, you will not be imperiled
     And can be long-lasting.

45. Great perfection seems flawed, yet functions without a hitch.
     Great fullness seems empty, yet functions without exhaustion.
     Great straightness seems crooked,
     Great skill seems clumsy,
     Great eloquence seems stammering.
     Excitement overcomes cold, stillness overcomes heat.
     Clarity and stillness set everything right.

46. When the Tao prevails in the land
     The horses leisurely graze and fertilize the ground.
     When the Tao is lacking in the land
     War horses are bred outside the city.
     Natural disasters are not as bad as not knowing what is enough.
     Loss is not as bad as wanting more.
     Therefore the sufficiency that comes from knowing what is enough is an eternal sufficiency.

47. Without going out the door, knowing everything,
     Without looking out the window, knowing the Way of Heaven.
     The further you go, the less you know.
     The sage understands without having to go through the whole process.
     She is famous without showing herself.
     Is perfected without striving.

48. In studying, each day something is gained.
     In following the Tao, each day something is let go of.
     Let go and again let it go.
     Until there is nothing left to do.
     Not-doing, nothing is left undone.
     You can possess the world by never manipulating it.
     No matter how much you manipulate
     You can never possess the world.

49. The sage has no fixed mind,
     She takes the mind of the people as her mind.
     I treat the good as good, I also treat the evil as good.
     This is true goodness.
     I trust the trustworthy, I also trust the untrustworthy.
     This is real trust.
     When the sage lives with people, she harmonizes with them
     And conceals her mind for them.
     The sages treat them as their little children.

50. Coming into life and entering death,
     The followers of life are three in ten.
     The followers of death are three in ten.
     Those whose life activity is their death ground are three in ten.
     Why?
     Because they live life grasping for its rich taste.
     Now I have heard that those who are expert in handling life
     Can travel the land without meeting tigers and rhinos,
     Can enter battle without being wounded.
     The rhino has no place to plant its horn,
     The tiger has no place to place its claws,
     Weapons find no place to receive their sharp edges.
     Why?
     Because he has no death-ground.

51.Tao gives birth to it,
     Virtue rears it,
     Materiality shapes it,
     Activity perfects it.
     Therefore, there are none of the myriad things who do not venerate the Tao or esteem its virtue.
     This veneration of the Tao and esteeming of its virtue is something they do naturally, without being forced.
     Therefore, Tao gives birth.
     Its virtue rears, develops, raises, adjusts and disciplines,
     Nourishes, covers and protects,
     Produces but does not possess,
     Acts without expectation,
     Leads without forcing.
     This is called "Mysterious Virtue."

52. All things have a beginning, which we can regard as their Mother.
     Knowing the mother, we can know its children.
     Knowing the children, yet still cleaving to the mother
     You can die without pain.
     Stop up the holes
     Shut the doors,
     You can finish your life without anxiety.
     Open the doors,
     Increase your involvements,
     In the end you can't be helped.
     Seeing the subtle is called illumination.
     Keeping flexible is called strength.
     Use the illumination, but return to the light.
     Don't bring harm to yourself.
     This is called "practicing the eternal."

53. If I had a moment of wisdom
     I should walk the Great Path and fear only straying from it.
     Though the Way is quite broad
     People love shortcuts.
     The court is immaculate,
     While the fields are overgrown with weeds,
     And the granaries are empty.
     They wear silk finery,
     Carry sharp swords,
     Sate themselves on food and drink
     Having wealth in excess.
     They are called thieving braggarts.
     This is definitely not the Way.

54. The well-established cannot be uprooted.
     The well-grasped does not slip away.
     Generation after generation carries out the ancestor worship without break.
     Cultivate it in yourself and virtue will be real.
     Cultivate it in the family and virtue will overflow.
     Cultivate it in the town and virtue will be great.
     Cultivate it in the country and virtue will abundant.
     Cultivate it in the world and virtue will be everywhere.
     Therefore, take yourself and observe yourself.
     Take the family and observe the family.
     Take the town and observe the town.
     Take the country and observe the country.
     Take the world and observe the world.
     How do I know the world as it is?
     By this.

55. One who remains rich in virtuous power
     Is like a newborn baby.
     Bees, scorpions and venomous snakes do not bite it,
     The wild beasts do not attack it,
     Birds of prey do not sink their claws into it.
     Though its bones are weak
     And muscles soft,
     Its grip is strong.
     Without knowing of the blending of male and female
     S/he is a perfect production,
     The ultimate in vitality.
     S/he cries all day without getting hoarse.
     S/he is the ultimate in harmony.
     Understanding harmony is called the Constant.
     Knowing the Constant is called illumination.
     Nourishing life is called blessing.
     Having control of your breath is called strength.
     After things blossom they decay, and
     This is called the non-Tao.
     The non-Tao expires quickly.

56. She who knows does not speak.
     She who speaks does not know.
     Close your holes, shut your doors,
     Soften your sharpness, loosen your knots.
     Soften your glare and merge with the everyday.
     This is called mysterious unity.
     Though you cannot possess it, you are intimate with it
     And at the same time, distant.
     Though you cannot possess it, you are benefitted by it,
     And harmed by it.
     You cannot possess it, but are esteemed through it
     And humbled by it.
     Therefore the world values you.

57. Use fairness in governing the state.
     Use surprise tactics in war.
     Be unconcerned and you will have the world.
     How do I know it is like that?
     By this:
     The more regulations there are,
     The poorer people become.
     The more people own lethal weapons,
     The more darkened are the country and clans.
     The more clever the people are,
     The more extraordinary actions they take.
     The more picky the laws are,
     The more thieves and gangsters there are.
     Therefore the sages say:
     "I do not force my way and the people transform themselves.
     I enjoy my serenity and the people correct themselves.
     I do not interfere and the people enrich themselves.
     I have no desires
     And the people find their original mind.

58. When the government is laid back
     The people are relaxed.
     When the government is nitpicking
     The people have anxiety.
     Misfortune depends upon fortune.
     Fortune conceals misfortune.
     What has a definite delimitation?
     Or abnormality?
     The normal reverts to strangeness.
     Goodness reverts to perversion.
     People certainly have been confused for a long time.
     Therefore the sage squares things without cutting.
     Edges without separating.
     Straightens without lining up.
     Shines but does not glare.

59. In governing the country and serving Heaven
     There is nothing like frugality.
     Only by being frugal can you recover quickly.
     When you recover quickly you accumulate virtue.
     Having accumulated virtue,
     There is nothing you can't overcome.
     When there is nothing you can't overcome
     Who knows the limits of your capabilities?
     These limits being unfathomable
     You can possess the country.
     The Mother who possesses the country can be long-living.
     This is called "planting the roots deeply and firmly."
     The way to long life and eternal vision.

60. Ruling a large country is like cooking a small fish.
     When you govern people with the Tao
     Demons will have no power.
     Not that they don't have power,
     But their power will not harm people.
     Since the sage doesn't harm people,
     The two will not harm each other.
     Here their power merges and returns.

61. The great state should be like a river basin.
     The mixing place of the world,
     The feminine of the world.
     The feminine always overcomes the masculine by softness
     Because softness is lesser.
     Therefore if a large state serves a small state
     It will gain the small state.
     If a small state serves a large state
     It will gain the large state.
     Therefore some serve in order to gain
     And some gain despite their servitude.
     The large state wants nothing more
     Than to unite and feed its people.
     The small state wants nothing more
     Than to enter into the service of the right person.
     Thus both get what they want.
     Greatness lies in service.

62. The Tao is hidden deeply in all things.
     It is the treasure of the good
     And the refuge of the not-so-good.
     With skillful words you can be successful.
     With honorable actions you can be included.
     People may not be so good, but how can you deny them?
     Therefore, even though there are great jewels brought in by teams of horses
     at the coronation of the emperor and the installation of the three princes,
     This is not as good as staying where you are
     And advancing in this Tao.
     Why did the ancients so value the Tao?
     You can't say that it was for seeking gain
     Or to have punishments to deter crime.
     Therefore it is the most prized in the world.

63. Do without "doing."
     Get involved without manipulating.
     Taste without tasting.
     Make the great small,
     The many, few.
     Respond to anger with virtue.
     Deal with difficulties while they are still easy.
     Handle the great while it is still small.
     The difficult problems in life
     Always start off being simple.
     Great affairs always start off being small.
     Therefore the sage never deals with the great
     And is able to actualize his greatness.
     Now light words generate little belief,
     Much ease turns into much difficulty.
     Therefore the sage treats things as though they were difficult,
     And hence, never has difficulty.

64. That which is at rest is easy to grasp.
     That which has not yet come about is easy to plan for.
     That which is fragile is easily broken.
     That which is minute is easily scattered.
     Handle things before they arise.
     Manage affairs before they are in a mess.
     A thick tree grows from a tiny seed.
     A tall building arises from a mound of earth.
     A journey of a thousand miles starts with one step.
     Contriving, you are defeated;
     Grasping, you lose.
     The sage doesn't contrive, so she isn't beaten.
     Not grasping, she doesn't lose.
     When people are carrying out their projects
     They usually blow it at the end.
     If you are as careful at the end
     As you were at the beginning,
     You won't be disappointed.
     Therefore the sage desires non-desire,
     Does not value rare goods,
     Studies the unlearnable
     So that she can correct the mistakes of average people
     And aid all things in manifesting their true nature
     Without forcing it.

65. The ancients who were skillful at the Tao
     Did not illuminate the people
     But rather kept them simple.
     When the people are difficult to rule
     It is because of their cleverness.
     Therefore
     If you use cleverness to rule the state
     You are a robber of the state.
     If you don't use cleverness to rule the state
     You are a blessing to the state.
     Always knowing the proper norm is called
     Mysterious Virtue.
     How deep and far-reaching Mysterious Virtue is!
     It makes all return
     Until they reach the Great Norm.

66. The reason the river and sea can be regarded as
     The rulers of all the valley streams
     Is because of their being below them.
     Therefore they can be their rulers.
     So if you want to be over people
     You must speak humbly to them.
     If you want to lead them
     You must place yourself behind them.
     Thus the sage is positioned above
     And the people do not feel oppressed.
     He is in front and they feel nothing wrong.
     Therefore they like to push him front and never resent him.
     Since he does not contend
     No one can contend with him.

67. The reason everybody calls my Tao great
     Is because there is nothing quite like it.
     It is exactly because it is great
     That there is nothing quite like it.
     If there were something that were consistently like it
     How could it be small?
     I have three treasures which I hold and cherish.
     The first is compassion,
     The second is frugality,
     The third is not daring to put myself ahead of everybody.
     Having compassion, I can be brave.
     Having frugality, I can be generous.
     Not daring to put myself ahead of everybody
     I can take the time to perfect my abilities.
     Now if I am brave without compassion
     Generous without frugality, or
     Go to the fore without putting my own concerns last,
     I might as well be dead.
     If you wage war with compassion you will win.
     If you protect yourself with compassion you will be impervious.
     Heaven will take care of you,
     Protecting you with compassion.

68. The best warrior is never aggressive.
     The best fighter is never angry.
     The best tactician does not engage the enemy.
     The best utilizer of people's talents places himself below them.
     This is called the virtue of non-contention.
     It is called the ability to engage people's talents.
     It is called merging with Heaven.
     The ancients were unrivaled in this.

69. Strategists have a saying:
     "I prefer to be able to move, rather than be in a fixed position
     Prefer to retreat a foot rather than advancing an inch."
     This is called progress without advancing;
     Preparing without showing off;
     Smashing where there is no defense;
     Taking him without a fight.
     There is no greater danger than under-estimating your opponent.
     If I under-estimate my opponent
     I will lose that which is most dear.
     Therefore
     When opponents clash
     The one who is sorry about it will be the winner.

70. My words are easy to understand
      And easy to practice.
      Yet nobody understands them or practices them.
      My words have an origin;
      My actions have a principle.
     It is only because of your not understanding this
     That you do not understand me.
     Since there are few who understand me
     I am valued.
     Therefore the sage wears coarse clothes.
     Yet hides a jewel in his bosom.

71. There is nothing better than to know that you don't know.
     Not knowing, yet thinking you know--
     This is sickness.
     Only when you are sick of being sick
     Can you be cured.
     The sage's not being sick
     Is because she is sick of sickness.
     Therefore she is not sick.

72. When the people do not fear your might
     Then your might has truly become great.
     Don't interfere with their household affairs.
     Don't oppress their livelihood.
     It is only your oppression that makes them oppressed.
     Thus the sage understands herself
     But does not show herself.
     Loves herself
     But does not prize herself.
     Therefore she lets go of that
     And takes this.

73. If you are courageous in daring you will die.
     If you are courageous in not-daring you will live.
     One is beneficial and the other is harmful.
     Even the sage has difficulty in knowing this.
     The Way of Heaven is to win easily without struggle.
     To respond well without words,
     To naturally come without special invitation,
     To plan well without anxiety.
     Heaven's net is vast.
     It is loose.
     Yet nothing slips through.

74. If the people don't fear death
     How will you scare them with death?
     If you make the people continuously fear death
     By seizing anybody who does something out of the ordinary
     And killing them,
     Who will dare to move?
     There is always an official executioner to handle this.
     If you play the role of the official executioner
     It is like playing the role of the Master Carpenter.
     There are few who will not cut their hands.

75. The reason people starve
     Is because their rulers tax them excessively.
     They are difficult to govern
     Because their rulers have their own ends in mind.
     The reason people take death lightly
     Is because they want life to be rich.
     Therefore they take death lightly.
     It is only by not living for your own ends
     That you can go beyond valuing life.

76  When people are born they are gentle and soft.
     At death they are hard and stiff.
     When plants are alive they are soft and delicate.
     When they die, they wither and dry up.
     Therefore the hard and stiff are followers of death.
     The gentle and soft are the followers of life.
     Thus, if you are aggressive and stiff, you won't win.
     When a tree is hard enough, it is cut. Therefore
     The hard and stiff are lesser,
     The gentle and soft are greater.

77. The Way of Heaven
     Is like handling a bow.
     The top is pulled down,
     The bottom is pulled up.
     Excess string is removed
     Where more is needed, it is added.
     It is the Way of Heaven
     To remove where there is excess
     And add where there is lack.
     The way of people is different:
     They take away where there is need
     And add where there is surplus.
     Who can take his surplus and give it to the people?
     Only one who possesses the Tao.
     Therefore the sage acts without expectation.
     Does not abide in his accomplishments.
     Does not want to show his virtue.

78. Nothing in the world is softer than water,
     Yet nothing is better at overcoming the hard and strong.
     This is because nothing can alter it.
     That the soft overcomes the hard
     And the gentle overcomes the aggressive
     Is something that everybody knows
     But none can do themselves.
     Therefore the sages say:
     The one who accepts the dirt of the state
     Becomes its master.
     The one who accepts its calamity
     Becomes king of the world.
     Truth seems contradictory.

79. After calming great anger
     There are always resentments.
     How can this be considered as goodness?
     Therefore the sage keeps her part of the deal
     And doesn't check up on the other person.
     Thus virtuous officials keep their promise
     And the crooked ones break it.
     The Heavenly Tao has no favorites:
     It raises up the Good.

80. Let there be a small country with few people,
     Who, even having much machinery, don't use it.
     Who take death seriously and don't wander far away.
     Even though they have boats and carriages, they never ride in them.
     Having armor and weapons, they never go to war.
     Let them return to measurement by tying knots in rope.
     Sweeten their food, give them nice clothes, a peaceful abode and a relaxed life.
     Even though the next country can be seen and its doges and chickens can be heard,
     The people will grow old and die without visiting each others land.

81. True words are not fancy.
     Fancy words are not true.
     The good do not debate.
     Debaters are not good.
     The one who really knows is not broadly learned,
     The extensively learned do not really know.
     The sage does not hoard,
     She gives people her surplus.
     Giving her surplus to others she is enriched.
     The way of Heaven is to help and not harm.
     The Way of the sage is to act without contending.

  

 

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